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  • The Ethics of Doing

Soviet Ceramics: From Bolek and Lolek to Ceramics Practice.

The aim of the artistic research presented in this paper is to find a personal approach to the ceramics of the Soviet period. The artistic research is presented in the form of text and accompanying photographs. Preparing this paper, the author used descriptive analysis of examples of pottery appearing in the Bolek and Lolek animation series; the examples were analysed and used in the artistic research; moreover, the author used Soviet era tools and materials for producing ceramics.


The exploration of knowledge, partly through the production process, has recently brought a new dimension to research in the creative fields. In addition to producing artefacts, practitioners-researchers also document, reflect and contextualise their related creative process as well as its outcomes.11 Mäkelä, Maarit ...

Artistic research in the Lithuanian ceramics field is rare: a few notable studies have been conducted by Ieva Bertašiūtė-Grosbaha and Rokas Dovydėnas. In addition to theory, the arts rely on unspoken, tacit knowledge that can be intuitive. The practice of wheel throwing in ceramics is based on a few things: the sensitivity of the fingers, the sensual feeling of the axis of the rotating centrifuge and the interaction with the wet clay. It is a process that seems to require no mental engagement but only physical experience. Working in a studio and experimenting, it is often difficult to break down every thought or action into parts or subdivide it. Even when describing actions, movements and processes, part of the tacit knowledge slips through the fingers and remains unspoken. This applies to most areas of work where knowledge is related to work experience. I understand the need to improve articulating my work and turn tacit knowledge into text. Donald Schon has written on these problems in the encounter between craft and text in the book The Reflective Practitioner:22 Schon, Donald. The ... according to the author, practitioners can learn by working and thus can improve their knowledge in a non-theoretical way. Also worth mentioning is Paul Carter’s book Material Thinking;33 Carter, Paulo. ... Carter argues that art research is exceptional in having what he calls “material thinking”, as opposed to objective research. Working with a material, this way of thinking can be applied to achieve open, unpredictable results – it is process-oriented thinking.44 Ibid., 13. Carter’s arguments may be the starting point for discussing the whole practice of contemporary art in relation to the craft tradition.

At the beginning of the research for this paper, the object of the research was clear – Soviet ceramics. As Mika Hanulla states, practice-led researchers are in hybrid insider/outsider position when doing research.55 Hanulla, Mika. ... Rethinking my private approach to Soviet times, I chose Soviet-era animation movies as a source of inspiration.

Animation became the context of the study, and later it turned into the material to investigate and with which to establish a personal relationship. This study aims to contribute to knowledge in a specific field of ceramics. In this way, artistic research work overlaps both traditionally understood research of art and research in art.66 Frayling, ... The interpretation of an animation was chosen for the purpose of acquiring new knowledge, which, otherwise than in the present case, would not be possible to acquire through practice. Flow of artistic knowledge, the ability to create non-traditional synapses between different fields of knowledge as well as approaches to knowledge presentation,77 Gerald Bast, Elias ... enables creative interpretation of the data obtained during the study of the animated films and examination of the knowledge generated during the practical work.

The field of ceramics is often a practice-based art and design research context. For these reasons, it is difficult to find and apply theories suitable for this creative field. In ceramics research it is the practice, the development process, which becomes the main research method. In carrying it out, the theoretical and creative parts of the research are interdependent, and the creative process is reflected, described, and systematized in the theoretical part. This path of research creates a close connection between theory and practice. Since the outcome of the artist’s work is generally difficult to predict – the results are more often unexpected than expected – this method of work provides an opportunity to experience unique results. Working with clay means constant change; the clay expands and contracts, it can be burnt and decorated, and the visible results are intermediate until it acquires its final shape. By kneading, twisting, pressing and otherwise acting on the material, one experiences a physical process of work.

Research Documentation

Pottery often uses photography and drawings to tell stories of tacit knowledge. In the books of Bernard Leach,88 Bernard Leach, ... Michael Cardew,99 Michael Cardew, ... and Juozas Adomonis1010 Juozas Adomonis, ... on ceramics, drawings of finished pieces and tools, equipment, and work in progress can be found. The illustrations in these books are an equal part of the story, without which the text would be incomplete or incomprehensible. In this study, I use photographs to illustrate concepts or actions taken to explain the text. Although video capture seems to best reproduce fast-moving actions, I opted for a less dynamic form of documentation, a photo capture. On a throwing wheel, much of the movements are repetitive, so the sequence of photos is as good as creating a narrative. There are also work tools presented – the pottery throwing wheel and knives. There is another problem concerning working with clay – although most of us are accustomed to photographing ourselves, posing for selfies or taking pictures using equipment, this is not possible working in the ceramics studio. Working with clay, one’s hands are covered with liquid clay, reminiscent of thickened milk in its consistency, thus there was a need for an assistant to take the photos documenting the work process. The photos were taken with consistent guidance of what should be visible in them.

Bolek and Lolek

Putting into practice a study of Soviet-era ceramics, I chose a slightly different path than the direct way of transforming the images depicted in the Soviet photos into clay artworks. Reconstructing my personal experience of watching Polish TV during Soviet times in Kaunas, I chose to create ceramics, depicted in the animated Polish films. As far as I remember my life in the Soviet Union, I saw only a few animated foreign films: Krtek1111 Director – ... from Czechoslovakia and Bolek i Lolek1212 Directors: ... from Poland. The Czech animation films are about a little mole’s adventures in the forest, while Bolek and Lolek are two boys living in the city, frequently reading books, and going out to the countryside. An average animation film of this series begins with an introduction, in which the boys read a book together, and while reading, imagining an adventure found in the book, after which they go outside to recreate the story. The 8- to 10-minute-long videos end with the happy heroes returning home. While researching online, I reviewed 174 shorter and longer episodes, produced between 1962 and 1986 in Poland. These animations can be found on the the YouTube website.

In cinema or, in this case, in animation, as in any other artwork, the reality is conditional. A realistic situation can be identified when boys go fishing or construct go-karts. The interiors of the animated heroes’ living spaces are also as realistic as it is possible in animation. The images show the walls, windows, doors, furniture, books on the shelves, vases with freshly cut flower bouquets on chests of drawers, plant pots on the thin-legged pot stands and large vases placed in the corners of rooms. Probably these are the ideal room settings of the 1960’s through the 1980’s.

The shapes of vessels in the episodes vary, since the animation had been produced throughout more than 20 years, a period during which the aesthetic tastes of society changed. Stylistically, the biggest collection of folk pottery that can be distinguished is found at the boy’s grandmother’s home in the village, seen in the film Little Red Riding Hood.1313 Stanislaw Dulz ... Terracotta pots are of a diameter equal to their height; they are obviously mass-produced, unglazed flowerpots seen in every home. The flowerpots in the urban household of Lolek and Bolek are more elegant: conical shapes, slightly higher than their diameter.

These listed pots are depicted in the following cartoons: Kusza1414 Władysław ... – green, Brave Cowboys1515 Stanisław Dulz ... – greyish, and Beast Killer1616 Edward Wator ... – grey. These three pots of different colours stand on the same high wooden stool, with the same plant growing in them; there is a feeling that the same pot travels from episode to episode together with the heroes.

Very similar pots can be identified in Crossed Swords1717 Wacław Wajser ... – brown, with an ornamental darker brown stripe in the lower quarter; in Treasure Hunters1818 Lechosław ... – greenish; a few brown pots in the interiors of Rainy Holidays:1919 Bronisław Zeman ... two brown, one brown with blue vertical stripes and a brown one with zigzag lines at the top and a lighter brown zigzag at the bottom part. Moreover, in Dog2020 Wacław Wajser ... – bluish, in The Camp2121 Stanisław Dulz ... – brown, in August Wanderings2222 Waclaw Wajser ... and in Winter Games2323 Zdizław Kudla ... – the same brown flowerpot with flowers, in Monkey2424 Wacław Wajser ... – brown. This kind of pot is the most typical ceramic object depicted in the odyssey of Bolek and Lolek.

Other forms of decorative vases are much rarer. In Crossed Swords, several other shapes of vases are notable, one of which is a stylish asymmetrical grey, reminiscent of the Greek lekythos shape, probably made by casting in mould method, although it would be possible to throw it on the potter’s wheel. Wheel-thrown asymmetrical shapes indicate the special mastery of the craftsman. Another shape seen in the films is a large brown vase placed on the floor with planted Ficus. It is decorated with abstract oval-shaped spots of darker brown colour, reminiscent of Chinese haitangzun shape vase. One more vase (Il. 3.) of similar size and shape is depicted in Cursed Castle2525 Wacław Wajser ... – brown, wide topped, decorated with one zigzag. Sometimes vases are pictured in the corner or near the border of the frame; apparently the animators did it with some frame composition considerations. In Animal Slayer, there is a partially visible vase reminiscent of a pilgrim’s flask. It is grey, bearing rich decorations in black and white stripes and dots. The vessel of the same style is seen in Corrida,2626 Lechosław ... decorated with similar colours. In Astronauts,2727 Leszek Lorek ... a vase resembling the shape of a haitangzun is pictured on a bookshelf. This vase has a slightly wider neck and diameter like the bottom part. The vase is grey, decorated with checks of various shapes created by crossing brown horizontal and vertical lines, with cells of different sizes following the shape of the vase. It is likely that the child would draw a vase of this shape if requested; they are perfect for tulips or other short-stemmed flowers – the heavy bottom is stable, and the flowers spread out beautifully at the wide top. Vases of this form are visible in The King of the Forest.2828 Alfred Ledwig ... A white vase, decorated with black spirals is depicted standing in the room on a chest of drawers. The spirals rotate in different directions, they are relatively large – five spirals on one side of the vase, six on the other. Four white plates (Il. 2) of undefined shapes are lined up on the sideboard. The plates are decorated with a black oval stroke in the middle: this decoration could be comprehended as a shadow falling on a soup plate’s bottom. All four plates are slightly different in size and shape; I would tend to consider the oval stroke in the middle of the plate as a decor, not a shadow, because of a solid broad dash.

Evidently, the vases and plates seem to be created by the hands of the same creator. The Robinson series2929 Alfred Ledwig ... shows two vessels – a pot and a vase. The pot is grey with white insides (Il. 1), and it would not be particularly interesting aesthetically if not for one detail: its top is tilted inwards, not outwards. The form can be described as a pot without a neck or a meiping vase without a top. This shape looks as if designed specifically in the 1960s, and it fits perfectly with the kidney-shaped tables with pointed legs. Another asymmetrical grey vase is decorated with lighter coloured stripes and seems more like a glass vase than a clay one. The repetition of this bluish hue is seen in a slim vase, decorated with vertical lines, in the Athletes episode.3030 Wacław Wajser ... Larger pot-shaped vases of solid brown and abstract variegated blue are seen in Cinderella in Slippers,3131 Bronisław Zeman ... Rainy Holidays,3232 Bronisław Zeman ... and August.3333 Waclaw Wajser ... In The First Day of the Holiday,3434 Alfred Ledwig ... a three-legged pitcher in the style of that period is depicted standing on a piece of furniture. It is shown standing on a bookshelf – not a very functional, rather more a commemorative item. Two meiping vases are placed on the bookshelf in the other room – blue and brown.

Watching the animations suggested three possible decisions:

* Follow the plot of animation, as in each episode the boys read a book and then take action, developing an adventure. In my case, I turned to making ceramics.

* Recreate the most repeated ceramic forms found in the animation.

* As mentioned above, reality in animations is relative, so I can decide to transfer it to my study. There is no mentioning of the size of the works in all the documentary photos.

After defining the study’s goals, the most important research question emerged: If the creative process of Bolek and Lolek Ceramics is just a repetition of already created artworks, could an authentic result and new knowledge be expected in copying ceramics from the animation? Looking for the answer to this question, authentic Soviet-era materials, tools and creative resources were used.

Shapes and Ornaments

After having watched all the episodes available, I selected the most frequently-repeating pottery: these were the plates, pots and two types of flower vases – one large, meant for placing on the floor, and one small, created for decorating a table or a chest of drawers. The tableware intended for food – plates, cups, teapots – is usually white, while the colours of the pots and vases vary between earthy tones and blue hues.

I chose the most typical shapes, and the most exotic-looking ones. There are three types: pots for planted flowers, first seen in Kusha and in later animated films, these simple pots appeared many times; the oval pot, which first appeared in Robinson; and plates were seen only once in the King of the Forest animation. I did not choose meiping or haitangzun vase interpretations. Searching for new and authentic content, I did not want to repeat these forms since I have already explored them in the Tadpole vs Louhan project. To discover something new, the shapes that promised aesthetic adventure and the aura of the Soviet era were chosen. Ornaments chosen in this study were limited to the ones depicted in the cartoons: continuous wide horizontal stripes, narrow vertical lines, large checks, zigzag lines, and spirals. Usually only two or three colours were used to create the decor.

Clay and Glazes

In 2017, when I started the study, I hoped to create the artworks using brown Rokai quarry clay, produced in Lithuania since Soviet times. In 2018, a company producing this clay went into bankruptcy. I had no will to fully prepare the clay myself – to dig, clean and knead it. I had to choose another option out of the many available possibilities. The clay can be chosen by the desired colour, or quarry location, or by having certain properties of plasticity or because of its compatibility with glazes.

The Soviet era had its oddities, and sending raw materials long distances was common for the industry at the time – clay from Ukraine was transported to Panevėžys “Ekranas” factory, and glazes from Dulevo paint factory, located near Moscow, were supplied to “Dailė” factories in Vilnius and Kaunas. Local Lithuanian low-quality clay was not transported long distances.

If selecting the clay by the origin of production, only the red clay produced in Kuršėnai and sold prepared for use could be suitable. Schools and kindergartens buy this clay because it is the cheapest one available. It is not a bad quality product; this clay is suitable for throwing and moulding, and after being burnt in the kiln it obtains a rich red colour. Clay producers also supply glazes suitable for this clay. In order to use this clay with glazes from another manufacturer, tests should be conducted beforehand. Red clay is also available from manufacturers in Germany or Spain. These choices, however, would be unauthentic.

I also decided to use stoneware clay that have been produced in Kaunas’ “Jiesia” factory since the 1980s, despite its colour. The plasticity of this material is similar to the red clay, and it can be moulded or shaped by hand. “Jiesia” stoneware was used for moulding, and the composite mix of clay was blended for this purpose. Stoneware colour varies from pink to grey; it is suited for glazes produced in the Soviet era – the glazes stick to the surface well.

The choice of colours for this study was quite tricky. Dulevo paint factory was still operating in 2020, producing pigments and glazes for ceramics. Lead-based glazes are categorized by the European Union customs system as hazardous substances. Their transportation is restricted according to various regulations, and the glazes are quite expensive. On the other hand, glazes produced in the Czech Republic, Germany, or Italy available nowadays are of a much higher quality than Soviet-era materials. Their coverage, translucency and colour intensity properties are completely different since the materials are designed to be used for creating high-quality artworks.

Before starting the study, I coincidentally purchased a large amount of authentic Vilnius “Dailė” factory glazes from its former employees. It was still packed in original paper packages, with factory labels or handwritten glaze codes attached. The list of the glazes is: 186, 2405, 2550, 290, 2901, 3031, 3044, 3051, 3060, 3068, 3090, 3094, 3119, 3616, 3636, 3646, 4100, 428, 4500, 4520, 6464 – a total of 21 glazes. I used them in making Bolek and Lolek Ceramics. The highest temperature for these glazes is 980° C.

Throwing Wheel

To describe the throwing wheel that I used, I would start with the fact that it is a heavy machine, weighing circa 50-60 kg. Made in the late 1970s by an unknown maker, it is constructed of metal profiles. The rotation of the wheel is created by pressing the shaft of the electric motor directly to the iron disc mounted at the bottom of the machine. It is similar in design to foot-operated throwing wheels. The seat of the throwing wheel is at the same height as the wheel. Another feature of this throwing wheel is that the motor’s direction of rotation can be selected when switched on. Thus, it can be used equally well by left-handed or right-handed people. The machine has an interesting design: the rotating disc and the electric motor that powers it are not installed in one plane, so by intelligently manipulating the pedal that regulates the ringing speed, a gentle, constant twitching of the disc can be obtained. If this property is not important during clay throwing, the mechanical, centrifugal beating is twice as strong during trimming. Looking at it in a complex way, using an object or creating with the help of a device, I perform a programmed action by design.

Process of Wheel Throwing

The description of the wheel-throwing technique in Adomonis’ book occupies the greatest volume3535 Juozas Adomonis, ... among the descriptions of all the methods of clay forming. Nevertheless, the text states that “it is impossible to describe all the nuances of throwing. Sensitivity of the palm and fingers must be formed for successful work”.3636 Juozas Adomonis, ... Bernard Leach notes that “any verbal description of the ring is inappropriate, if not misleading. Anyone who wonders for the first time how a pot is formed from a clay mass into a pot is amazed at how this usually happens”.3737 Bernard Leach, ... Wheel throwing is a technique that requires only tactile skills. As Cardew notes in Pioneer Pottery, “learning to cultivate is not a quick process, and it takes several months of intensive practice and seven years to mature”.3838 Michael Cardew, ...

The work process is presented in the sequence of photos 4-7. After each day of work, all thrown pieces were examined and the ones most resembling the pieces seen in the animation selected. After the first firing, works were decorated with different Soviet-era glazes and fired once again. The finished results are presented in the sequence of photos 8-26.


It can be concluded that my creative process was affected by the study of Bolek and Lolek animated films. The study of forms and shapes found in these animated films was embodied in a throwing practice in my studio. These activities included experiments with form and glazes. The author’s personal creative process was revealed and discussed, showing experiments with clay and the systematic creation of the forms, resulting in completely new works. The result is a paradox: using Soviet stoneware, glazes, and instruments, selecting forms and ornaments from the animation, yet by copying the artworks in general, new vases were created and new knowledge was obtained.



This paper was prepared with the support of the Lithuanian Council for Culture.

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1. Mäkelä, Maarit & Latva-Somppi, Riikka. “Crafting Narratives: Using Historical Context as a Reflective Tool”, in Craft Research, Volume 2, June 2011, p. 39.
2. Schon, Donald. The Reflective Practitioner, Basic books, 1983.
3. Carter, Paulo. Material Thinking, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 2004.
4. Ibid., 13.
5. Hanulla, Mika. Artistic Research – Theories, Methods and Practices, Academy of Fine Arts, Helsinki, Finland and University of Gothenburg / ArtMonitor, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2005. p. 67.
6. Frayling, Christopher. Research in Art and Design, London: Royal College of Art. 1993, p. 5.
7. Gerald Bast, Elias G. Carayannis, and David F.J. Campbell. Introduction to Arts: Research, Innovation, and Society. p. 3 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09909-5_1.
8. Bernard Leach, Potters Book, London: Unicorn Publishing Group, 2015.
9. Michael Cardew, Pioneer Pottery, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1971.
10. Juozas Adomonis, Keramikos menas, Vilnius: Vilniaus dailės akademija, 1998.
11. Director – Zdeněk Miler.
12. Directors: Władysław Nahrebecki, Leszek Lorek, Alfred Ledwig, Stanisław Dulz, Edward Wator and others.
13. Stanislaw Dulz [director], (1971), Czerwony kapturek, from the animation series Bajki Bolka i Lolka, Film Polski, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=L85T6qOEqU4.
14. Władysław Nehrebecki [director], (n.d.), Kusza, from the animation series Lolek i Bolek, Studio Filmów Rysunkowych w Bielsku-Białej, (Video), https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=vIgh8HTVRcQ.
15. Stanisław Dulz [director], (n.d.), Dzielni Kowboje, from the animation series Bolek i Lolek, Studio Filmów Rysunkowych w Bielsku-Białej, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZVF7BKtAwA.
16. Edward Wator [director], (n.d.), Pogromka Zwierzat, from the animation series Bolek i Lolek, Studio Filmów Rysunkowych w Bielsku-Białej, (Video), https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=WTr8eBDF9tw.
17. Wacław Wajser [director], (n.d.), Skrzyzowane Szpady, from the animation series Bolek i Lolek, Studio Filmów Rysunkowych w Bielsku-Białej, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ayMf_PI0CYE.216
18. Lechosław Marszalek [director], (n.d.), Poławiacze Skarbów, from the animation series Bolek i Lolek, Studio Filmów Rysunkowych w Bielsku-Białej, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JiF1K16ThBg.
19. Bronisław Zeman [director], (1972), Deszczowe Wakacje, from the animation series Przygody Bolka i Lolka, Centrala Wynajmu Filmów I Telewizja Polska, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cua0tIicOvM&t=12s.
20. Wacław Wajser [director], (1972), Psiaczek, from the animation series Przygody Bolka i Lolka, Centrala Wynajmu Filmów I Telewizja Polska, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2s-Paz_qdRs.
21. Stanisław Dulz [director], (1973), Biwak, from the animation series Przygody Bolka i Lolka, Centrala Wynajmu Filmów I Telewizja Polska, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?vsZcM29yk-v9c.
22. Waclaw Wajser [director], (1973), Sierpniowa Wedrowka, from the animation series Przygody Bolka i Lolka, Centrala Wynajmu Filmów I Telewizja Polska, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PLl_NUgYvfI.
23. Zdizław Kudla [director], Zimowe Igraszki, (1973), from the animation series Przygody Bolka i Lolka, Centrala Wynajmu Filmów I Telewizja Polska, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4h5mYoYwlL0.
24. Wacław Wajser [director], (1973), Małpka, from the animation series Przygody Bolka i Lolka, Centrala Wynajmu Filmów I Telewizja Polska, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DPsX1HfoFWA.
25. Wacław Wajser [director], (1971), Zaklęty Zamek, from the animation series Bajki Lolka i Bolka, Centrala Wynajmu Filmów I Telewizja Polska, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SDKofqWVoGM.218
26. Lechosław Marszalek [director], (n.d.), Corrida, from the animation series Bolek i Lolek, Studio Filmów Rysunkowych w Bielsku-Białej, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=amXJU-rvtAQ.
27. Leszek Lorek [director], (n.d.), Kosmonavci, from the animation series Bolek i Lolek, Studio Filmów Rysunkowych w Bielsku-Białej, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zsGzvg8BW04.
28. Alfred Ledwig [director], (n.d.), Król Puszczy, from the animation series Bolek i Lolek, Studio Filmów Rysunkowych w Bielsku-Białej, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t2MH981N1Uk.
29. Alfred Ledwig [director], (n.d.), Król Puszczy, from the animation series Bolek i Lolek, Studio Filmów Rysunkowych w Bielsku-Białej, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t2MH981N1Uk.
30. Wacław Wajser [director], (n.d.), Sportowcy, from the animation series Bolek i Lolek, Studio Filmów Rysunkowych w Bielsku-Białej, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LPugj4gELHs&t=6s.
31. Bronisław Zeman [director], (1971), Pantofelek Kopciuszka, from the animation series Bajki Lolka i Bolka, Centrala Wynajmu Filmów I Telewizja Polska, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wMS4b6jUZ8U.
32. Bronisław Zeman [director], (1972), Deszczowe Wakacje, from the animation series Przygody Bolka i Lolka, Centrala Wynajmu Filmów I Telewizja Polska, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cua0tIicOvM&t=12s.
33. Waclaw Wajser [director], (1973), Sierpniowa Wedrowka, from the animation series Przygody Bolka i Lolka, Centrala Wynajmu Filmów I Telewizja Polska, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PLl_NUgYvfI.
34. Alfred Ledwig [director], (n.d.), Pierwszy Dzień Wakacji, iš animacinių filmų serijos Bolek i Lolek na Wakacjach, Studio Filmów Rysunkowych w Bielsku-Białej, (Video), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=htRoACMUmM4.
35. Juozas Adomonis, Keramikos menas, Vilnius: Vilniaus dailės akademija, 1998, pp. 116-119.
36. Juozas Adomonis, Keramikos menas, Vilnius: Vilniaus dailės akademija,1998, p. 116.
37. Bernard Leach, Potters Book, London: Unicorn Publishing Group, 2015, p. 71.
38. Michael Cardew, Pioneer Pottery, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1971, p. 114.
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